Eight departmental courses are required. Of these, five must be in the original languages at the 200 level or above, including at least one course at the 300 level. The combination of LAT 104-108, or CLG/LAT 105-108, may be counted as the equivalent of one 200-level course. One course in ancient history (CLA 214, 216, 217, 218, or 219, or HIS 343) must also be included among the departmentals. Students must also take the Junior Seminar in the fall of their junior year.
Students may count, among the eight departmentals, up to two courses not requiring the use of Greek or Latin (in addition to the course in ancient history). These courses may be offered by the department or, with the approval of the departmental representative, they may be courses in other departments that deal with aspects of Greek and Roman civilization (see examples below).
Students are expected to pass a sight translation examination from Greek or Latin. This examination may be taken, by arrangement, at the end of any term in the junior or senior year; it will be graded pass/fail.
Students who are considering further work in the field, either in graduate school or in independent study, should take both Latin and Greek to the 300 level, continuing with both languages in each term of the junior and senior years. Such students are also strongly advised to take at least one course in Greek history and one in Roman history in their underclass years.
Students concentrating in Classics have the opportunity to study in depth one or more of the areas listed below.
Greek or Latin Literature. Literary texts form the core of the study of the classical world, and the majority of concentrators are likely to plan their program of study around literature. In addition to the many courses offered in Greek and Latin, the department offers a number of courses on literature in translation, including CLA 212: Classical Mythology; CLA 323: Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama. COM 205: The Classical Roots of Western Literature also treats many Greco-Roman works.
Ancient History. In addition to survey courses in Greek and Roman history (CLA 216, 217, 218, 219), the department offers courses on the ancient historians in the original language and advanced seminars on selected historical topics (CLA 326, 327). Also available: CLA 214: The Other Side of Rome; CLA 324: Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History; CLA 325: Roman Law; CLA 329: Sex and Gender in the Ancient World; NES 220: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in the Middle Ages; NES 331: The Ancient Near East.
Classical Philosophy. Courses are offered in both Greek and Latin and in translation, including CLA 205: Introduction to Ancient Philosophy; PHI 300: Plato and His Predecessors; and PHI 301: Aristotle and His Successors.
Classical Art and Archaeology. ART 202: Greek Art: Ideal Realism; ART 203: Roman Art; ART 300: Greek Archaeology of the Bronze Age; ART 301: The Art of the Iron Age: The Near East and Early Greece; ART 302: Myths in Greek Art; ART 306: Classical Athens: Art and Institutions; ART 308: Roman Cities and Countryside: Republic to Empire.
Medieval Studies. In addition to courses in Medieval Latin (LAT 232), the following are offered: HIS 343: The Civilization of the Early Middle Ages; HIS 344: The Civilization of the High Middle Ages; MED 227: The World of the Middle Ages; POL 301: Ancient and Medieval Political Theory; and ART 205: Medieval Art in Europe.
Studies in the Reception of Classical Antiquity. Courses are offered on the later reception of classical antiquity, including CLA 334: Modern Transformations of Classical Themes; CLA 335: Studies in the Classical Tradition.
Junior Seminar. During the fall of the junior year, all majors must take the Junior Seminar (CLA 340). The course introduces students to different fields of study within the department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics, and reception studies. Students will gain experience in the methods of their chosen area(s) of study while acquiring an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the 21st century. Students will also acquire the skills necessary to pursue junior and senior independent work. Students who are abroad during the fall of their junior year can complete the Junior Seminar during the fall semester of their senior year.
Junior Independent Work. In the fall term, each student researches and writes a paper of 15 to 20 pages on a topic of their choosing under the direction of a faculty adviser. The Junior Seminar will provide guidance in choosing a topic, structuring an outline, writing, and revising. In the spring term, students undertake a more ambitious research paper of 20 to 25 pages. Each student again works closely with a member of the faculty on the project, meeting regularly over the course of the spring term for discussion and analysis.
Senior Independent Work. At the end of the second term of the junior year, a departmental student is advised to select the subject of the senior thesis after consultation with the departmental representative. The thesis in its final form must be submitted to the department by April 15 of the senior year.
Senior Departmental Examination
Students are expected to pass the senior comprehensive examination on Greek and Roman literature, history, and culture. They will have the opportunity to write on either or both civilizations.
Travel and study in the Mediterranean are important parts of a classical education. The department strongly encourages its students to participate in one of the many programs available. Many departmental students spend one term of junior year at the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. The center offers instruction in classical languages, presents lectures on ancient literature and history, and sponsors a series of trips to important museums and archaeological sites. Instruction is in English by American faculty members, and the curriculum is integrated with the Princeton undergraduate program. Equally valuable is the summer program at the American School of Classical Studies in Athens.
The department has some funds to help meet the expenses of such summer study, and additional assistance may be available through the Program in Hellenic Studies.
Summer Study. Students who would benefit from intensive work in the languages may apply for financial assistance to study at a Greek or Latin institute.
- CLA 205 Introduction to Ancient Philosophy (See PHI 205)
- CLA 208 Origins and Nature of English Vocabulary (also ENG 240 /LIN 208 /TRA 208 ) Not offered this year LAThe origins and nature of English vocabulary, from proto-Indo-European prehistory to current slang. Emphasis on the Greek and Latin component of English vocabulary, including technical terminology (medical/scientific, legal, and humanistic). Related topics: the alphabet and English spelling, slang and jargon, social and regional variation, vocabulary changes in progress, the "national language'' debate. Two lectures, one preceptorial. J. Katz
- CLA 211 Rhetoric: Classical Theory, Modern Practice (also HLS 211 ) Fall ECStylish, seductive, surreptitious, and scorned, the ubiquitous art of persuasion will be the focus of this course. We will first approach rhetoric through the classical tradition, learning to recognize basic figures of speech and thought with an eye towards identifying what is persuasive and why. We will then consider how rhetoric continues to thrive, despite abundant moral and philosophical attacks, in public self-presentation, whether of household products, of politicians, or institutions such as Princeton. A. Ford
- CLA 212 Classical Mythology (also HUM 212 /GSS 212 /HLS 212 ) Fall LAA study of classical myths in their cultural context and in their wider application to abiding human concerns (such as creation, generation, sex and gender, identity, heroic experience, death, transformations, and transcendence). A variety of approaches for understanding the mythic imagination and symbol formation through literature, art, and film. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Holmes
- CLA 214 The Other Side of Rome (also CHV 214 ) Not offered this year EMAn introduction to Roman culture emphasizing tensions within Roman imperial ideology, the course explores attitudes toward issues such as gender and sexuality, conspicuous consumption, and ethnicity through the works of authors such as Petronius, Lucan, and Tacitus. It also considers the role of cinematic representations of ancient Rome in 20th-century America. Two lectures, one preceptorial. A. Feldherr
- CLA 216 Archaic and Classical Greece (also HIS 216 ) Fall HAA formative episode in Western civilization: the Greeks from the rise of the city-state, through the conflict between Athens and Sparta, to the emergence of Macedon in the fourth century B.C. Emphasis on cultural history, political thought, and the development of techniques of historical interpretation through analysis of original sources (Herodotus, Thucydides, and others). Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax
- CLA 217 The Greek World in the Hellenistic Age (also HIS 217 /HLS 217 ) Not offered this year HAThe Greek experience from Alexander the Great through Cleopatra. An exploration of the dramatic expansion of the Greek world into the Near East brought about by the conquests and achievements of Alexander. Study of the profound political, social, and intellectual changes that stemmed from the interaction of the cultures, and the entrance of Greece into the sphere of Rome. Readings include history, biography, religious narrative, comedy, and epic poetry. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax
- CLA 218 The Roman Republic (also HIS 218 ) Fall HAA study of the causes and unforeseen consequences of one small city-state's rise to world-empire, primarily through the analysis of ancient sources (including Livy, Polybius, Caesar, and Cicero) in translation. Emphasis on the development of Roman society and the evolution, triumph, and collapse of the republican government that it produced. Two lectures, one preceptorial. D. Padilla Peralta
- CLA 219 The Roman Empire, 31 B.C. to A.D. 337 (also HIS 219 ) Not offered this year HAA study of the profound transformation of Rome by the multicultural empire it had conquered, ending with the triumph of Christianity. Emphasis on typical social and cultural institutions and on the legacies of Rome to us. Ancient sources in translation include documents, histories, letters, and novels. Two lectures, one preceptorial. B. Shaw
- CLA 301 Ancient and Medieval Political Theory (See POL 301)
- CLA 302 The Art of the Iron Age: The Near East and Early Greece (See ART 301)
- CLA 306 Classical Athens: Art and Institutions (See ART 306)
- CLA 320 Topics in Medieval Greek Literature (also HLS 320 /MED 320 /GSS 320 ) Not offered this year LAThe subject of this course will be medieval Greek Romantic fiction. We will read translations of the four surviving novels written in twelfth-century Constantinople in a bid to answer questions about the link between eroticism and the novel, truth and invention in the middle ages, who read fiction and why, and what role, if any, did the medieval or Byzantine Romances have in the story of the European novel. Above all, we will seek to recover some of the pleasure felt by the medieval readers and audiences of these novels. E. Bourbouhakis
- CLA 323 Self and Society in Classical Greek Drama (also COM 323 ) Not offered this year LADesigned to give students who are without knowledge of the Greek language the opportunity to read widely and deeply in the field of Greek drama, with particular emphasis on an intensive study of Greek tragedy, its origins and development, staging, structure, and meanings. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff
- CLA 324 Classical Historians and Their Philosophies of History (also HIS 328 /HLS 322 ) Not offered this yearHAMajor classical historians, especially Herodotus and Thucydides, are studied in connection with the theory and practice of the art or science of history. Lectures and preceptorials treat the development of historical writing and its relationship to philosophy, politics, literature, and science, and problems such as that of fact and interpretation in historical writing. Two lectures, one preceptorial. M. Domingo Gygax
- CLA 325 Roman Law (also HIS 329 ) Not offered this year HAThe historical development of Roman law and its influence on modern legal systems. Particular attention is given to the fundamental principles of Roman private law, including the law of persons, property, inheritance, and contract; and there is a close analysis of courtroom procedure. Two lectures, one preceptorial. Staff
- CLA 326 Topics in Ancient History (also HIS 326 /REL 329 ) Fall HAA period, problem, or theme in ancient history or religion with critical attention to the ancient sources and modern discussions. The topic and instructor vary from year to year. Format will change each time, depending on enrollment. H. Flower
- CLA 327 Topics in Ancient History (also HIS 327 /HLS 327 ) Not offered this year HAA period, problem, or theme in ancient history or religion with critical attention to the ancient sources and modern discussions. The topic and instructor vary from year to year. Format will change each time, depending on enrollment. N. Luraghi
- CLA 329 Sex and Gender in the Ancient World (also MED 329 /GSS 331 ) Not offered this year SAThe theoretical and ideological bases of the Western attitudes toward sex and gender categories in their formative period in the Greco-Roman world through the study of myth and ritual, archaeology, art, literature, philosophy, science, medicine, law, economics, and historiography. Selected readings in classical and modern texts. Staff
- CLA 330 Greek Law and Legal Practice (also CHV 330 /HLS 340 ) Fall EMThe development of Greek legal traditions, from Homer to the Hellenistic age. The course focuses on the relationship between ideas about justice, codes of law, and legal practice (courtroom trials, arbitration), and the development of legal theory. Two 90-minute seminars. M. Domingo Gygax
- CLA 334 Modern Transformations of Classical Themes (also COM 334 /HLS 334 ) Not offered this year LAA special topic concerning the adaptation of one or more classical themes in contemporary culture through media such as literature, film, and music. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff
- CLA 335 Studies in the Classical Tradition (also HLS 335 /MED 335 ) Not offered this year HAA classical genre or literary theme will be studied as it was handed down and transformed in later ages, for example, the European epic; ancient prose fiction and the picaresque tradition; the didactic poem. Two 90-minute seminars. E. Bourbouhakis
- CLA 340 Junior Seminar: Introduction to Classics Fall HAThis course will introduce concentrators to the study of classical antiquity. Students will become acquainted with different fields of study within the Department, including literature, ancient history, ancient culture, linguistics, and reception studies; gain experience in the methods of their chosen area(s) of study; and acquire an understanding of the history of the discipline and its place in the twenty-first century. Sessions will involve guest visits from members of the faculty. Particular attention will be paid to acquiring the skills necessary to pursue independent research and the selection of a topic for the spring Junior Paper. Y. Baraz
- CLA 343 The Civilization of the Early Middle Ages (See HIS 343)
- CLA 344 The Civilization of the High Middle Ages (See HIS 344)
- CLA 355 Transformation of the Ancient World: Byzantium 500-1200 (See HIS 355)
- CLG 101 Beginner's Greek: Greek Grammar FallReading in the language is combined throughout with the learning of forms, vocabulary, and syntax. A foundation is built in classical vocabulary and grammar during the first term as a base for the student in the continuing course, Greek 102. Four classes. No credit is given for CLG 101 unless followed by CLG 102. A. Ford
- CLG 102 Beginner's Greek: Attic Prose SpringThe study of vocabulary, grammar, and syntax is continued from 101 by intensive reading in Attic prose of the classical period. Authors such as Plato are read. Four classes. J. Billings
- CLG 103 Ancient Greek: An Intensive Introduction SpringAn intensive introduction to the essentials of Greek grammar. Students will begin reading Attic prose as quickly as possible. 103 covers the material of 101-102 in a shorter period through increased class-time, drills, and earlier exposure to actual Greek texts. Leads directly to 105. Five classes. E. Bourbouhakis
- CLG 105 Socrates FallThe life and teaching of Socrates based upon the evidence of Plato and Xenophon. Aristophanes's Clouds may also be read in English, with some excerpts in Greek. Includes a review of the grammar of Attic prose. Prerequisite: 102 or 103, or instructor's permission. Four classes. J. Billings
- CLG 108 Homer SpringThe course consists of extensive reading in the Iliad supplemented by lectures and study assignments directed to Homer's literary art and to the moral and religious thought of the Homeric epics. Four classes. Prerequisite: 103, or the equivalent. C. Wildberg
- CLG 213 Tragic Drama Fall LAThe tragic drama of the last three decades of the fifth century B.C. Normally one tragedy each by Euripides and Sophocles is read in Greek, with other texts and critical work in English. Two 90-minute seminars. B. Holmes
- CLG 214 Greek Prose Authors Not offered this year LADeals with a major topic in Greek literature or cultural history with readings from several of the most important Greek authors. Three hours. Prerequisite: Greek 108 or equivalent. Alternates with 213. M. Domingo Gygax
- CLG 240 Introduction to Post-Classical Greek from the Late Antique to the Byzantine Era (also HLS 240 ) Spring LAReadings will focus on historical, literary, philosophical, or religious texts with a range from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods. Two 90-minute seminars. E. Bourbouhakis
- CLG 301 Plato Not offered this year LAReading of selected dialogues with lectures on various aspects of the Platonic philosophy. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff
- CLG 302 Greek Tragedy Not offered this year LAThree tragedies are read in class; others (both in Greek and English) are assigned as outside reading. The preceptorials deal with general discussions of tragedy, including Aristotle's Poetics. Two 90-minute seminars. B. Holmes
- CLG 304 Greek Historians Fall HAIntensive study of a major historical author, such as Herodotus or Thucydides, with special attention to narrative technique and historiographical principles. Two 90-minute seminars. N. Luraghi
- CLG 305 Greek Comedy Not offered this year LASeveral plays of Aristophanes are read in the original (for example, Acharnians, Clouds) and others in translation. The emphasis of the course is on the language and verbal effects of the comedies, and on the connections of Old Comedy with Euripidean tragedy, contemporary politics, and philosophy. Consideration is also given to New Comedy, with selections from Menander's Dyskolos in Greek. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff
- CLG 306 Greek Rhetoric: Theory and Practice Not offered this year HAAn introduction to the major techniques of Greek rhetoric with special attention to rhetorical treatises such as Aristotle's Rhetoric and to the application of these techniques in oratory and other literary forms. A. Ford
- CLG 307 Homer and the Epic Tradition Not offered this year LAAll of the Odyssey is read in English and a considerable portion is read in Greek. Classes include close translation of key passages and reports on special topics. Emphasis is upon literary interpretation of the epic on the basis of detailed analysis of epic style, diction, and narrative techniques. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Ford
- CLG 308 The Lyric Age of Greece Not offered this year LAMajor texts of the Greek lyric age in their cultural and literary setting. An author such as Hesiod or Pindar may be selected for intensive treatment. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Ford
- CLG 310 Topics in Greek Literature Not offered this year LAThe subject matter of the course will vary from year to year depending on the interests of the instructor and students. The reading may concentrate on one or more authors, a theme, a genre, a personality, or an event. J. Katz
- LAT 101 Beginner's Latin FallThe course is designed to introduce the student with no previous training in the language to the basics of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax. A foundation is built in the first term for continuation in the spring-term course, 102. Four classes. No credit is given for LAT 101 unless followed by LAT 102. R. Kaster
- LAT 102 Beginner's Latin Continued: Basic Prose SpringThe study of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax is continued from Latin 101. Reading in basic prose works by authors such as Cicero or Caesar completes the course. Four classes. Y. Baraz
- LAT 103 Latin: An Intensive Introduction SpringAn intensive introduction to the Latin language that covers the material of 101-102 in a shorter time through increased class time and drills. Students completing the course will be prepared to take LAT 105. Four classes, one drill. A. Feldherr
- LAT 104 Intensive Intermediate Latin Not offered this yearAn alternative to Latin 105, offering more review of Latin grammar and syntax. Also designed as an introduction to Latin literature through selected readings in poetry and prose. Five classes. R. Kaster
- LAT 105 Intermediate Latin: Catullus and His Age FallSelections from the poems of Catullus and from Cicero's Pro Caelio form the core of the reading. 105 is a continuation of 102 and is designed as an introduction to Latin literature. Important grammatical and syntactical principles are reviewed. Four classes. Prerequisite: 102 or equivalent. Staff
- LAT 108 The Origins of Rome: Livy and Vergil SpringThe reading will be composed of excerpts from the early books of Livy's History of Rome, together with selections from Vergil's Aeneid (such as Book 4 or 8). The course introduces the student to two major works of the Augustan Age and gives advanced instruction in the Latin language. Fulfills the A.B. language requirement. Four classes. Prerequisite: 104, 105, or equivalent. D. Feeney
- LAT 203 Introduction to Augustan Literature Fall LAReadings from Ovid, particularly his love poetry and his "epic,'' the Metamorphoses, as well as from other poets (such as Horace, Tibullus, and Propertius). Three hours. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. D. Feeney
- LAT 204 Readings in Latin Literature Fall LAThe course will deal with a major topic in Roman cultural history or Latin literature, with readings from three or four of the most important Latin authors.This course may be taken for credit more than once, provided different topics are treated. Three hours. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. R. Kaster
- LAT 205 Roman Letters Fall LAA careful reading of a selection of Latin letters in prose and verse by Cicero, Horace, Ovid, Pliny, and others in order to understand the place this important form of communication held in Roman culture. Prerequisite: 108 or permission of instructor. Two 90-minute classes. R. Kaster
- LAT 210 Invective, Slander, and Insult in Latin Literature Not offered this year LAThis course aims to build skills in reading literary Latin in a variety of genres, both poetry and prose, while introducing students to an important social function shared by many types of texts: winning status and prestige by slandering a rival. The substance of this invective--the kind of insult that wins over an audience--can also tell us much about Roman values in various realms of public and personal behavior. Prerequisite: LAT 108 or instructor's permission. Seminar. R. Kaster
- LAT 232 Introduction to Medieval Latin Spring LAIntended for students in any field interested in the Latin Middle Ages. Readings will include a wide variety of prose and poetry from the fourth to the 14th centuries. Attention will be given both to improving reading skills and to acquiring essential background information and critical method. Two 90-minute seminars. Prerequisite: 108 or equivalent. Staff
- LAT 234 Latin Language and Stylistics Not offered this year LAStudy of the development of literary Latin (predominantly prose), with translation to and from Latin. Syntactic and stylistic analysis of sections of such authors as Cicero, Sallust, Seneca. Translations of brief portions of major authors, with practice in thematically related composition. Two 90-minute seminars. R. Kaster
- LAT 330 Cicero Not offered this year LAThe course will present a representative selection from Cicero's enormous literary production. The specific texts studied will differ from year to year, but will normally include extensive reading from at least two of the three main genres of Cicero's prose works: essays, letters, and orations. Two 90-minute seminars. R. Kaster
- LAT 331 Horace Not offered this year LASelected Odes, Epodes, Satires, and Epistles are read with emphasis on Horace's relation to Greek poetry, his poetic techniques and originality, his ethical and literary views, his portrayal of the life and culture of Augustan Rome, and his influence upon English poetry. Two 90-minute seminars. D. Feeney
- LAT 332 Roman Drama Not offered this year LAThe course will concentrate on a single author (for example, Plautus) or will survey the development and technique of the drama in Rome, with major emphasis on comedy. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz
- LAT 333 Vergil's Aeneid Not offered this year LAAn intensive study of the Aeneid, with focus on literary values but also with consideration of political and social factors, literary ancestry, and influence. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz
- LAT 334 Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics Not offered this year LACritical reading and literary analysis of Vergil's cycle of 10 pastoral poems (Eclogues) and of the four books of Georgics. Two 90-minute seminars. Staff
- LAT 335 Roman Literature: Selected Author or Authors Not offered this year LAThe subject matter of the course will vary from year to year, depending on the interests of the instructor and students. The reading may concentrate on one or more authors, a theme, a genre, a personality, or an event. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Feldherr
- LAT 336 Epicureanism and Stoicism Fall EMA study of the two main philosophical schools of the Republic and Early Empire: Epicureanism and Stoicism. Readings (in Latin) will be selected from Lucretius, Cicero, and Seneca, supplemented by selections from Greek sources in English translation. Two 90-minute seminars. A. Feldherr
- LAT 337 Roman Republican Historians Not offered this year HASelections of historians' works are read that illustrate topics such as the historian's use of sources, historical outlook, narrative techniques, style, and reliability. Sample historians of the Republic who may be read are Livy, Sallust, and Caesar, depending on the interests of the instructor and students. Two 90-minute seminars. H. Flower
- LAT 338 Latin Prose Fiction Fall LAA critical study of Latin fiction such as Petronius's Satyricon and Apuleius's Metamorphoses (Golden Ass). Although the chief emphasis will be on the literary aspects of these influential works, some attention will also be given to their value as social and religious documents of their time. Two 90-minute classes. Staff
- LAT 339 Roman Historians of the Empire Not offered this year HAAn examination of historians' approaches to history and their literary merits; sample historians to be surveyed include Tacitus, Suetonius, and Velleius Paterculus; sample topics to be covered include their views of autocracy (nature and effects) and of Roman civilization (value, influence, shortcomings). Two 90-minute classes. B. Shaw
- LAT 340 Roman Satire Not offered this year LASelected satires of Horace, Juvenal, and Persius are read. Classes emphasize translation, stylistic analysis, and explication of the texts. There are also reports on special topics such as the origins and development of satire at Rome, and at least one in-depth interpretation by each student of a selected individual passage. Two 90-minute seminars. Y. Baraz
- LAT 342 Roman Elegy from Catullus to Ovid Not offered this year LASelections from Latin elegy. Students will read the fourth book of Propertius and sections of Ovid's Fasti, together with other elegies. Focuses on the poetic presentation of the metropolis of Rome, its history, religion, and urban life. Two 90-minute classes. D. Feeney